Airway, Ventilation and Respiration (Paramedic) Study Center > Diagnostic Tests > Paramedic Diagnostic Tests > Airway, Ventilation and Respiration (Paramedic) Step 1 of 30 3% A 35 year old male has overdosed on calcium channel blocker pills. He presents semiconscious and you note a very slow sinus bradycardia on the monitor. His vital signs are P 34, R 6, BP 70/40. You should first* administer calcium chloride. administer glucagon. initiate positive pressure ventilation. begin chest compressions. An 81 year old female is in severe respiratory distress secondary to an exacerbation of her COPD. She is working very hard to breathe and using a great many accessory muscles. She notes she is very tired. Her vital signs are P 120, R 44, BP 184/94. After initiating bronchodilator therapy, you should next* initiate rapid sequence intubation. administer 500 mL of normal saline. administer intramuscular epinephrine. initiate CPAP. A 48 year old male began coughing violently during dinner. Just before your arrival, the coughing ceased and the patient began to turn blue. You observe that he is conscious but unable to speak. You cannot observe any breathing. You should* begin chest compressions. attempt to ventilate with a BVM. initiate abdominal thrusts. perform a finger sweep. A 9 year old male has been sick with a sore throat for three days. His mother called EMS today when she found him gasping and making a crowing sound while breathing. You find the patient unconscious and apneic. First responders attempted intubation but identified a large mass around the tonsils that interfered with passing the tube. Attempts at bag mask ventilation have been unsuccessful. You should next* administer racemic epinephrine. insert a supraglottic airway. Initiate a surgical airway. attempt intubation again. A 5 year old male is being ventilated with a bag mask device. You note abdominal distention and difficulty squeezing the bag. You should next* insert a gastric tube to decompress the stomach. increase the pressure of ventilation. needle decompress the patient’s chest. insert a supraglottic airway. You are attempting to face mask ventilate a morbidly obese patient who has taken a narcotic overdose. You are unable to obtain chest rise with your initial breath. You should next* move the patient to a supine position. reposition the head and assure a sniffing position. insert an endotracheal tube. insert a blind insertion airway. A 31 year old male has a large, open hole in his chest wall just above his right nipple. Which of the following would best describe why he would be unable to inflate his lungs on inhalation?* Destruction of his diaphragm Inability to generate negative intrathoracic pressure Rising intrapleural pressure Inability to generate positive intrathoracic pressure A 16 year old male has been shot in the neck. You find the patient seated and coughing blood. The wound is bleeding massively. You should first* suction the airway. apply direct pressure. attempt orotracheal intubation. apply an occlusive dressing. A 77 year old male is being transported on a ventilator and suddenly develops signs of hypoxia including cyanosis and low pulse oximetry. You further note the new onset of JVD. You should next* attempt deep tracheal suctioning. immediately remove the endotracheal tube. increase the FiO2 being delivered. confirm bilateral lung sounds. You have just inserted a needle through the cricothyroid membrane of an adult patient and now wish to ventilate. Which of the following methods would be most appropriate?* A jet insufflator device An ET tube connector attached to a bag mask device An automatic transport ventilator attached to an ET tube connector Oxygen tubing attached to a one-way valve Which of the following landmarks would be most appropriate for the placement of a needle cricothyroidotomy?* The cricoid ring The thyroid gland The thyroid cartilage The cricothyroid membrane A 19 year old male has been burned pouring gasoline on a fire. He has partial thickness burns to his chest, neck and lower face. He is speaking normally but complains of pain upon breathing. His vital signs are P 120, R 30, BP 122/82. You should first* administer a fluid bolus. initiate endotracheal intubation. administer humidified oxygen. insert a supraglottic airway. A 20 year old male complains of vertigo, nausea and a headache after being exposed to high levels of carbon monoxide caused by a poorly ventilated propane heater. Fire department meters confirm dangerously high levels. He is alert and his vital signs are P 98, R 20, BP 120/80. His pulse oximetry reads 97% on room air. You should first* administer high concentration oxygen. obtain a capnography reading. administer low concentration oxygen. administer calcium chloride. Which of the following would most likely cause a lower airway burn?* An AC electrical burn Inhalation of superheated steam Ingestion of superheated liquid Circumferential burns of the chest A 59 year old male has collapsed while watching a football game. He is unconscious. After assuring that the scene is safe, you should next* assess for a pulse. assess for breathing. begin chest compressions. defibrillate at 200J. A 17 year old male began choking while eating. He is not breathing or coughing. First responders note that BLS foreign body airway procedures have failed. The patient is cyanotic and is barely conscious. You should next* attempt a blind finger sweep. attempt to insert a supraglottic airway. begin CPR. prepare for a surgical airway. The three fundamental pathologies of asthma include bronchospasm, mucous plugging and* vasoconstriction. alveolar membrane thickening. inflammation. hypocapnia. Decreased pH in a shock patient is most prominently caused by* anaerobic metabolism. hypocapnea. dehydration. aerobic metabolism. A 65 year old male with a history of coronary artery disease presents with a new onset of severe shortness of breath. He is breathing with severe distress and his respiratory rate is 60. When assessing waveform capnography you note very low amplitude waves and a numeric value of 10 mmHg. You should suspect* respiratory alkalosis. a spontaneous pneumothorax. your capnograph is not functioning properly. a pulmonary embolism. You have just intubated a 59 year old male. You identified the epiglottis and visualized the tube as it passed the vocal cords. After inflating the cuff of the tube, you should next* begin 10-12 ventilations per minute. secure the tube using a commercial tube holder. confirm the tube with end-tidal capnography. confirm the presence of epigastric sounds. A 3 year old has had a cough for 8 days. Her mother reports that the coughing episodes are growing more and more severe and called today because the child turned blue when coughing. The child is awake but appears drowsy and slightly gray. You should first administer* inhaled magnesium. high concentration oxygen. intravenous corticosteroids. inhaled epinephrine. A 14 year old male was thrown from an ATV at moderate speed. He is found unconscious with snoring respirations. You should first* elevate the patient’s head to a 30 degree angle. consider spinal precautions. attempt to suction the patient’s airway. open the airway with a head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver. You have achieved return of spontaneous circulation following ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest in a 63 year old female. She remains unconscious and apneic. Her vital signs are P 100, R 12 (via bag mask device), BP 100/65. You should next* begin an amiodarone infusion. administer a 1L normal saline bolus. initiate a norepinephrine infusion. insert an advanced airway. A 65 year old female developed a rapid onset of aphasia and right-sided weakness. Over the next 30 minutes she has rapidly lost her mental status and is now unconscious. The patient has vomited twice and is unable to protect her airway. You should next* ventilate using a bag mask device. insert an endotracheal tube. obtain a prehospital stroke scale. insert a supraglottic airway. A 19 year old male is in severe respiratory distress. His family states he has been struggling all day but was resistant to calling EMS. They note a long history of asthma. The patient is confused, cyanotic and gasping for air. His vital signs are P 140, R 8, BP 98/60. His pulse oximetry is 84%. You should first* begin positive pressure ventilation. initiate an albuterol treatment. administer a corticosteroid. administer ipratropium bromide. A 4 year old male has been found apneic and unconscious after being struck by a vehicle. He has abrasions on his head and his pulse is 74. After initiating transport to the trauma center 10 minutes away you should* initiate endotracheal intubation. insert a supraglottic airway. apply a non-rebreather mask. insert a nasal pharyngeal airway. A 91 year old female was diagnosed with rib fractures after a fall earlier this morning. Nursing home staff have called EMS now because the patient has an altered mental status and low oxygen saturation. You find the patient semiconscious, cyanotic and breathing shallowly, but with clear and equal lung sounds. You should first* initiate CPAP. administer high concentration oxygen. perform a needle decompression. begin positive pressure ventilation. A 40 year old male complains of difficulty breathing. The patient does not speak English, but his family states he has had a fever for three days. You note he prefers an upright position and coughs/gags when he lays back even a little. You also note he has difficulty swallowing. You should suspect* anaphylaxis. an upper respiratory infection. a foreign body airway obstruction. epiglottitis. Which of the following is a true fact regarding bariatric patients?* They generally are more difficult to endotracheally intubate. They desaturate more rapidly than an average size person. The esophagus opens at higher pressures during PPV. They require more volume to ventilate when using PPV. You have initiated positive pressure ventilation with a bag mask device on a 69 year old female in respiratory failure. You obtain chest rise with your first ventilation. You should next* prepare for endotracheal intubation. continue ventilating without further interventions. readjust the patient’s head position. insert an oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal airway.