Airway, Ventilation, and Respiration Study Center > Diagnostic Tests > Airway, Ventilation, and Respiration Step 1 of 40 2% A 3-year-old male presents with a sharp, high pitched, whistling sound auscultated on inspiration. This represents a/an* bronchospasm. dynamic hyperinflation. reactive airway disease. upper airway obstruction. In a patient exposed to inhaled smoke you should administer oxygen for complaints of dyspnea regardless of an SpO2 of 100% because* the pulse oximeter cannot distinguish between carbon monoxide and oxygen. hemoglobin has an affinity for oxygen stronger than many toxic compounds. oxygen prevents free radical development. oxygen flushes out carbon dioxide. A patient has a pulse oximeter reading of 72%. You notice he has some cyanosis of his fingers and toes. He is breathing 20 breaths/min with good chest rise. Which of the following would be the most appropriate treatment?* Assess for external bleeding Provide manual ventilations Assess distal circulation Provide supplemental oxygen You are called to a nursery school for a child with difficulty breathing. The patient is found to have respiratory failure and you are having trouble ventilating. You should* place a folded towel under the child’s neck. place a folded towel under the child’s head. place a folded towel under the child’s head and shoulders. place a folded towel under the child’s shoulders. You have been dispatched to a patient that passed out. Upon arrival you find a 55-year-old female lying on the couch. She is semi-conscious, has noisy respirations and appears to be cyanotic around her mouth. After opening her airway with the head-tilt chin-lift maneuver, your next step would be to* insert an oropharyngeal airway. insert a nasopharyngeal airway. start compressions. administer oxygen. Your 3-year-old patient was found in the backyard pool and is unresponsive. A carotid pulse is present at 60 beats per minute. Breathing is shallow at six per minute. You should immediately* apply a non-rebreather mask. place the patient in the recovery position. begin chest compressions. begin rescue breathing. During inspiration,* the diaphragm contracts and creates positive pressure in the thorax. the diaphragm is at rest creating negative pressure in the thorax. the diaphragm contracts and creates negative pressure in the thorax. the diaphragm is at rest creating positive pressure in the thorax. A patient in respiratory failure can no longer do the work to remove carbon dioxide from the body. This is a failure of which of the following?* Respiration Intubation Oxygenation Ventilation You are ventilating a patient with a bag-valve mask device and an oral airway is in place. You observe chest rise with each manual ventilation, however the abdomen is getting distended. Which of the following actions will help to prevent this problem?* Providing ventilations with a smaller volume Performing cricoid pressure Removing and reinserting the oral airway Providing pressure to the mid abdominal region What chemical produced in the lungs prevents the collapse of the alveoli by reducing the surface tension?* Atrovent Surfactant Mucolipid Hemoglobin A 67 year old female patient is found in bed unresponsive. She is cyanotic, has a respiratory rate of 12 and is making a snoring sound when she breathes. You should* assist ventilations with a bag-valve mask. insert an OPA. open her airway with a head-tilt chin-lift maneuver. administer high flow oxygen with a non-rebreather mask. A 75 year old male at an assisted living facility is complaining of difficulty breathing. He has a history of congestive heart failure, stroke and has been having difficulty lying down. The charge nurse advised that the patient had an unusual breathing pattern when she checked on him earlier in the shift. She describes his breathing pattern as irregular with increasing depth and rate followed by periods of not breathing. This type of breathing pattern is described as* Cheyne-Stokes respirations. ataxic respirations. apneic respirations. agonal respirations. A 37 year old female is vomiting copious amounts of thick material. You estimate you have suctioned for about 20 seconds and there are still large pieces of foreign matter in the patient’s airway. You should* suction for no longer than 30 seconds, then ventilate. continue suctioning until the material is removed. call advanced life support for airway assistance. discontinue suctioning and ventilate for 2 minutes. You and a partner are performing CPR on a patient in cardiac arrest. You should deliver compressions and ventilations at which ratio?* 30:2 15:1 15:2 60:2 A 21 year old male has been found unresponsive by his parents who state that he has a problem with drug abuse. During your assessment you place him on capnometry and get an EtCO2 reading of 65 mmHg. Which of the following could cause a capnometry reading of 65 mmHg?* Acidosis Hyperventilation Hypoventilation Hypoxia You are treating an unresponsive adult patient without a gag reflex. Prior to inserting an oral airway, you measure from the* middle of the ear to the larynx. corner of the mouth to the angle of the jaw. tip of the nose to the ear lobe. center of the mouth to the larynx. After an adult cardiac arrest patient has been intubated by a paramedic, you are providing ventilations as your partner performs chest compressions. When ventilating the patient, you should* hyperventilate the patient to maximize carbon dioxide elimination. deliver 2 breaths during a brief pause in chest compressions. deliver each breath over 2 seconds at a rate of 12 to 15 breaths/min. deliver each breath over 1 second at a rate of 10 breaths/min. The bag-valve mask is the most common device to ventilate patients in the pre-hospital setting. The average size bag-valve mask for a pediatric patient should have a maximum capacity of _______ ml.* 350 1000 500 700 A 34 year old male experiences a cervical spine injury during a diving accident. He develops inadequate respiratory effort. Which nerve is likely responsible for this condition?* subclavian median phrenic auricular The body primarily regulates the depth and rate of respiration by which measure within the cerebrospinal fluid?* oxygen viscosity clarity pH You are called to a 50-year-old male patient in cardiac arrest with bystander CPR. Your partner begins compressions and after attaching the AED and no shock advised, you begin positive pressure ventilations with a bag-valve mask. Which of the following would indicate adequate ventilation?* Visible and equal chest rise and fall Lack of air leak around the face mask Pressure pop-off valve not activated No gastric distention A patient with a stoma is being transported to the hospital. During transport the patient needs to be suctioned. Which type of suction catheter would you use?* Pharyngeal Tonsil-tip French type Yankauer You are called to a 50-year-old patient with throat cancer who had his larynx removed and has a permanent stoma. There is no tracheostomy tube in place. How would you ventilate this patient?* Ventilate with a standard bag-valve mask device over the nose only. Have a caregiver insert the tracheostomy tube before ventilating. Ventilate with a standard bag-valve mask device over the mouth and nose. Use a bag-valve mask with a pediatric mask to make a seal around the stoma. Your check of the oxygen in your ambulance includes observing the hydrostatic test date. A cylinder must be tested every ____ years.* 7 2 10 5 You decide to insert a nasopharyngeal airway into a semi-responsive patient with snoring respirations. The proper procedure to determine the correct size of nasopharyngeal airway is measuring from* the tip of the nose to the chin. the tip of the nose to the earlobe. the tip of the nose to the angle of the jaw. the corner of the mouth to the earlobe. During transport your patient suddenly becomes unresponsive. Her airway is open and she does not have a palpable pulse, however you note gasping respirations at a rate of 6 per minute. These respirations are called* apneic respirations. agonal respirations. ataxic respirations. Cheyne-Stokes respirations. While providing BVM ventilations to a 32-year-old male with chest trauma from a motorcycle versus tree collision, you notice it is becoming very difficult to provide positive pressure ventilations. This may represent* a pneumothorax. esophageal obstruction. pericardial tamponade. hypovolemia. Which of the following is an upper airway disease?* Pertussis Epiglottitis Asthma Cystic fibrosis You are dispatched to the local high school where you find a 15-year-old male student unresponsive from a possible drug overdose. The patient is breathing with snoring respirations and has a pulse. While inserting an oropharyngeal airway (OPA) the patient starts to gag. You should* remove the OPA and insert a smaller one. leave the OPA in place and keep your suction device close by. avoid placing any type of airway device. remove the OPA and consider inserting a nasopharyngeal airway (NPA). You respond to a motor vehicle crash involving a motorcycle. The motorcycle rider was not wearing a helmet and is found about 30 feet from the motorcycle. He is unconscious and is breathing about 10 breaths per minute with snoring sounds. What airway technique would you use to open the airway?* Place the patient in the recovery position Jaw thrust maneuver Head-tilt chin-lift maneuver Head-tilt neck-lift maneuver You have been asked to check the fixed suction device in the back of your ambulance. What is the minimum vacuum required for a fixed suction device?* 100 mmHg 300 mmHg 200 mmHg 400 mmHg Respiration is a process of gas exchange that occurs in the lung (external respiration) and at the cellular level (internal respiration). External respiration occurs in the* bronchi. alveoli. trachea. bronchioles. You are called to a patient with respiratory distress. Which of the following would contraindicate the use of continuous positive airway pressure?* A patient unable to follow commands A patient who is anxious A patient with a fast respiratory rate A patient with COPD Regulators for one type of compressed gas cannot be used for other types of compressed gas. To prevent the inadvertent attachment of a regulator on the incorrect cylinder, the compressed gas industry established a system to prevent such an occurrence. The system used for portable cylinders is called the* Stem and Yoke Safety system. American Standard System. Thread Diameter Safety System. Pin-indexing Safety System. You are treating an unresponsive diabetic patient with adequate breathing. In which position would you place the patient for transport?* Recovery Trendelenburg Prone Supine During your ongoing assessment of a patient in respiratory distress it becomes apparent that the patient is tiring and needs ventilatory assistance. You decide to use a bag-valve mask to provide positive pressure ventilations. Which of the following is an effect of positive pressure ventilation?* A decrease in vascular tone A decrease in cardiac output A decrease in intrathoracic pressure A decrease in gastric distention You are on scene treating a 6-year-old asthmatic patient. He is alert, breathing 36 breaths/min, has retractions and is making a grunting sound when he exhales. You should* assess for perfusion. gather medical history. call for advanced life support. maintain an open airway. You have been dispatched to the home of a 68-year-old female patient with a chief complaint of shortness of breath. Upon arrival you find the patient sitting in a tripod position. Her oxygen saturation is 91% and she has a history of emphysema. Which of the following would be the most appropriate initial oxygen administration device?* Partial rebreather mask Non-rebreather mask Venturi mask Nasal cannula You are dispatched to a local motel where a patient was found unresponsive in her room. Her airway is clear and respirations are shallow. The pulse oximeter reads 90%. Your first action should be to* check the blood glucose level. assess the blood pressure. begin positive pressure ventilations. suction the airway. Your patient is sitting in a wheelchair outside of a nursing home smoking a cigarette. His chief complaint is difficulty breathing and he has a history of COPD. Before administering oxygen, you ask the patient to extinguish his cigarette. You request this because* oxygen hinders combustion. oxygen can explode. oxygen supports combustion. oxygen is flammable.